Aim and objective of Management.
Brief History of Management
The concept of management was developed from the days of Adam. Management is required where a group of people are working to achieve any objective. Henry Fayol gave the management theory in (1916) which was based on his experiences in a mining company. This management theory was compiled in a book named “The General and Industrial Management”.
He classified the elements of management into five categories as mentioned below:
Other important contribution was made by Frederick Winslow Taylor (19th century) who was the father of Scientific Management. He gave the following principles of Scientific Management:
• Science is not a rule of thumb: Where the worker is allotted fair work, standardised and proper system ofpayment which discarded the old method of working.
• Harmony in group action: There should be peace and friendship in the group action and any kind of dissatisfaction should be eliminated.
• Co-operation: There should be cooperation between management and workers; this is achieved by mutual understanding and change in thinking.
• Maximum output: It is achieved through division of work and responsibility by the management and workers together.
• Improvement of workers: Workers should be well examined on the physical, educational and psychological parameters and should be provided with the training for their growth.
• Some of the other major works in the management field were done by Peter F. Drucker, Max Weber, George Elton Mayo, Mary Parker Follett, Henry L. Gantt etc.
Management is “The art of getting things done by a group of people with the effective utilisation of available resources”.
Peter F. Drucker defines management as, “Management is an organ; organs can be described and defined only through their functions.”
According to Henry Fayol, “To manage is to forecast and plan, to organise, to compound, to coordinate and to control.”
According to F.W. Taylor, “Management is the art of knowing what you want to do and then seeing that it is done in the best and cheapest way.”
According to Koontz and O’Donnel, “Management is the creation and maintenance of an internal environment in an enterprise where individuals, working in groups, can perform efficiently and effectively towards the attainment of group goals. It is the art of getting the work done through and with people in formally organised groups.”
The aim of the chapter is to:
• provide an introduction to management with its definition
• state a brief history about management
• mention the characteristics and functions of management
• explain different approaches to management
• distinguish between administration and management
• analyse the functions and role of a manager
The objectives of the chapter are to:
• enlighten the students with an introduction to management with its definitions
• enrich them with a brief history about management
• enable them to determine the characteristics and functions of management
• explore different approaches to management
• differentiate between the administration and management
• understand the roles and functions of a manger
At the end of the chapter students will be able to:
• state the definition of management
• identify the characteristics and functions of management
• recall the evolution of management
• judge the two different approaches to management
• justify the difference between administration and management
• assess the functions and role of a manager