Contribution of Taylor, Mayo & Fayol
Contribution of Taylor, Mayo & Fayol
Administrative Theory ?
Administrative management theory Henry Fayol ( 1841-1925) H. Fayol was a classical management theorist, widely regarded as the father of modern operational management theory. Fayol held that there is a single “administrative science”, whose principles can be used in all management situations no matter what kind of organization was being managed. This earned him the title of “Universality”.
Fayol’s 14 principles of management. Fayol’s developed 14 principles of management in order to help managers in their affairs more effectively. Today, these principle are still used but are often interpreted differently. 1. Division of work 2. Delegation of authority. 3. Descipline 4. Unity of command 5. Unity of direction 6. Subordination of individual interest 7. Remuneration 8. Centralization 9.Scalar chain / Chain of command 10. Order 11. Equity 12. Stability of tenure of personnel / Job guarantee 13. Initiatives 14. Esprit de crops ( team spirit).
Scientific management theory.
He is known as ‘father of scientific management’. His ideas about management grew out of his wide-ranging experience in three companies: Midvale Steel Works, Simonds Rolling Mills and Bethlehem Steel Co. Taylor concluded that scientific management involves a completer mental revolution on the part of both workers and management, without this mental revolution scientific management does not exist.
5 principles of scientific management;propounded by Taylor
Principles of scientific management propounded by Taylor are:
1. Science, Not Rule of Thumb 2. Harmony, Not Discord 3. Mental Revolution 4. Cooperation, Not Individualism 5. Development of each and every person to his or her greatest efficiency and prosperity.
1. Science, Not Rule of Thumb:
In order to increase organisational efficiency, the ‘Rule of Thumb’ method should be substituted by the methods developed through scientific analysis of work. Rule of Thumb means decisions taken by manager as per their personal judgments. According to Taylor, even a small production activity like loading iron sheets into box cars can be scientifically planned. This will help in saving time as well as human energy. Decisions should be based on scientific enquiry with cause and effect relationships. This principle is concerned with selecting the best way of performing a job through the application of scientific analysis and not by intuition or hit and trial methods. The work assigned to any employee should be observed and analyzed with respect to each element or part thereof and the time involved therein so as to decide the best way of performing that the work and to determine the standard output for same.
2. Harmony, Not Discord:
Taylor emphasized that there should be complete harmony between the workers and the management since if there is any conflict between the two, it will not be beneficial either for the workers or the management. Both the management and the workers should realize the importance of each other. In order to achieve this state, Taylor suggested complete mental revolution on the part of both management and workers. It means that there should be complete change in the attitude and outlook of workers and management towards each other. It should always be kept in mind that prosperity for an employer cannot exist for a long time unless it is accompanied by the prosperity of the employees of that organisation and vice versa.
It becomes possible by (a) sharing a part of surplus with workers (b) training of employees, (c) division of work (d) team spirit (e) positive attitude (f) sense of discipline (g) sincerity etc.
3. Mental Revolution:
The technique of Mental Revolution involves a change in the attitude of workers and management towards each other. Both should realize the importance of each other and should work with full cooperation. Management as well as the workers should aim to increase the profits of the organisation. For this the workers should put in their best efforts so that the company makes profit and on the other hand management should share part of profits with the workers.
4. Cooperation, Not Individualism:
This principle is an extension of principle of ‘Harmony, not discord’ and lays stress on mutual cooperation between workers and the management. Cooperation, mutual confidence, sense of goodwill should prevail among both, managers as well as workers. The intention is to replace internal competition with cooperation. Both ‘Management’ and ‘Workers’ should realize the importance of each other.
Taylor also suggested that there should be proper division of work and responsibility between the two. Management should always guide, encourage and help the workers.
5. Development of each and every person to his or her greatest efficiency and prosperity:
Efficiency of any organisation also depends on the skills and capabilities of its employees to a great extent. Thus, providing training to the workers was considered essential in order to learn the best method developed through the use of scientific approach. To attain the efficiency, steps should be taken right from the process of selection of employees. Employees should be scientifically selected.
GEORGE ELTON MAYO
Mayo’s contribution to management thoughts lies in the recognition of the fact that worker’s performance is related to psychological,sociological and physical factors. Mayo and his associates concluded that a new social setting created by their tests had accounted for the increase in productivity. Their finding is now known as the Hawthorne Effect or the tendency for people, who are singled out for specialattention, to improve their performance. Hawthorne study was an important landmark in studying the behaviour of workers and his relationship to the job, his fellow workers and organization. He highlighted that workers were found to restrict their output in order toavoid displeasure of the group, even at the sacrifice of incentive pay.